Home > Publications > Environment of Crimes and Violence at Community Level and its Exclusionary Effects on Children

Environment of Crimes and Violence at Community Level and its Exclusionary Effects on Children

Asad Ullah, Mussawar Shah & Bushra Shafi

Abstract
What could be the exclusionary effects of general environment of crimes at community level
and how unequal are these effects on children of different genders, religion, economic
standings and family types is the theme of this paper. A total of 500 children (12-18 years old)
were selected by systematic sampling technique, from seven shopping streets and seven high
schools of the District Peshawar and interviewed. Likert scale was used as measurement
tool. Association of variables was ascertained by using Chi-square test and Kendall’s Tau-b
statistics. Social exclusion in children was significantly and positively associated to
prevalence of criminal threats in community (p=0.000; and Tb= 0.308), people of the area
pose damage to each other (p=0.000; and Tb= 0.243), high crime rate in the area (p=0.000;
and Tb= 0.183), bullying as harassment (p=0.000; and Tb= 0.261), poor control by law
enforcing agencies (p=0.000; and Tb= 0.440), fear of crimes at residence (p=0.000; and Tb=
0.555), and increase in number of criminals day by day in the vicinity (p=0.000; and Tb=
0.194). The influence of environment of crime in social exclusion of children was universal
in its influence on children from genders, and economic background. However, its effect was
spurious for children from joint and nuclear families. Strengthening law enforcement
through enabling enforcing agencies, strict implementation of the rules through community
participation while controlling criminal threats, criminal acts and fear of crimes at
community and family level were suggested policy recommendations.

Keywords: Social Exclusion, Crimes, Violence, Community, Children