Home > Publications > Gender Role Perception and Exposure to Violence at Schools: A Study of Selected Schools* in District Mardan & Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Gender Role Perception and Exposure to Violence at Schools: A Study of Selected Schools* in District Mardan & Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Jamil Ahmad Chitrali & Prof. Dr. Anwar Alam

Abstract
Gender role perceptions shapes behaviors of students and therefore plays a major role in their
exposure to violence at and around schools. The study was conducted in the district of
Peshawar and Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A sample size of 522 respondents
(54.6% boys and 45.4% girls) was randomly selected on proportional allocation basis from
Grade 10 students. One school each of male and female and from the both districts having
public and private schools were taken for this study. The uni-variate gender based analysis
was analyzed through chi-square, percentages and other simple statistical measurements.
The study examined shows that perceiving a task related to education or family for any
specific gender was positively related to students’ exposure to various forms of violence at
school. Gender was also significantly associated to perception regarding gender based
preferences for admission in science subjects (p=0.000). The level of significance was also
high of gender with the issue ‘whom not to return to school if get marries and child born’
(p=0.000). Moreover, male had a key role as perpetrator of violence in all modes and
manifestations, whereas, sexual assaults were kept confidential in fear of social
stigmatization. A vibrant policy encompassing with respect to male role containment as
perpetrator of violence at school and family under a strong policy of check and balance along
with special focus on students living in hostels, egalitarian approach to both genders as
potential threat of sexual violence and strong liaison of the family and school on the basis of
sharing the issues pertaining to child well-being were forwarded some policy
recommendations in light of the study.

Keywords: Gender Role Perceptions, Gender Based Violence, Punishment, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa