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Improving Interdisciplinary Research on Policing and Security

Gabriele Bammer

Abstract
There are two problems with interdisciplinary research: that it is treated as a single
entity, even though it comes in many different forms, and that there are no standard
procedures for reporting such research. A new discipline of Integration and Implementation
Sciences (I2S) could overcome these problems by developing an agreed systematic way to
both conduct and report on one type of interdisciplinary research, namely team based
investigations on complex real world problems, such as many of those which bedevil
policing and security. I2S has three domains: 1) Synthesising disciplinary and stakeholder
knowledge, 2) Understanding and managing diverse unknowns and 3) Providing integrated
research support for policy and practice change. In addition, a five question framework
provides a systematic way to bring into play various key concepts and methods, such as
systems thinking, scoping and boundary setting, dialogue and modelling methods, context,
authorisation and evaluation of success.

Keywords: Interdisciplinary Research, Integration and Implementation Sciences (I2S), Knowledge Synthesis, Unknowns, Knowledge Translation