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Review of Doctrine of Estoppel as Substantive Rule of Law and Its Application in Civil and Criminal Law

Sara Qayum1, Muhammad Ifzal Mehmood2, & Sajjad Hussain3

Abstract
This article will focus on some of the basic practical uses of “Estoppel Doctrine” not as a mere rule of evidence but a substantive nature. Due to its strong legal background, it has acquired the status of “Substantive Rule of Law.” This enlarges the ambit of its application into civil and criminal cases. This article will focus on applying the Estoppel Doctrine in criminal and civil cases followed by basic legal justifications, opinion juristic and case laws. Many research papers have studied the history of Estoppel and its application and the existing conditions and legal discussions about it. The legal debate of dividing basic legal principles categorically
and logically witnesses its emergence after the innovation of modern jurisprudence.
The debate of declaring “Doctrine of Estoppel” as a mere “Rule of Evidence” or “Rule of Substantial Law” was one of those innovations. We also recommend more application of this doctrine in criminal and civil cases in order to achieve the best out of it.

Keywords: Estoppel, The substantive rule of law, Application, Civil law, Criminal law