The History and Development of Probation Service in Pakistan and in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Dr. Basharat Hussain
Probation is the punishment most widely associated with rehabilitation and helping
offenders to lead law-abiding lives. The probation system in Pakistan has a colonial origin.
The Probation of Offenders Ordinance 1960 has its origin in the Criminal Procedure Code
1898 (Amended 1923) passed into law by the British Colonial government. The passing of
the probation law in 1960 was part of the General Ayub Khan’s attempt to modernise
Pakistan. This article describes the historical origins of probation in Pakistan in general and
explores the development of the probation service in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in particular.
The main objectives, responsibilities, staffing, organizational structure and working pattern
of the RPD in KP are also included. This article is based on the review of primary and
secondary data. The secondary data mainly reflects upon the pre-independence era of
probation services whereas the primary data has been included to trace the postindependence period of probation service in Pakistan mainly due to the non-availability of
reliable resources on the topic. The primary data was collected from the ex-officials of the
Reclamation and Probation Department, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in 2005 as part of my PhD
Keywords: Probation, Punishment, Colonial Legacy, Rehabilitation, Supervision