As criminology continues to grow and develop, it generates new ideas, thoughts, and
approaches, and new fields of inquiry are uncovered. Until recently, child abuse and neglect,
and crimes against children were discussed under the heading of family violence. In
addition, most countries did not have separate juvenile justice legislation, or separate child
safety bureaus, or comprehensive juvenile justice systems. That began to change
subsequent to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) of 1989.