– Logic pro x pdf free
Using full color screenshots throughout, alongside related boxouts that expand on the key concepts, Logic Pro X: Audio and Music Production is an informative and easy-to-read guide to using Logic Pro X.
Key features include: Production FAQs — Instructional Walkthroughs and Knowledgebases present information clearly and answer common production—specific problems. Website — Access audio examples, samples Apple Loops , Logic projects, sampler instruments, and instrument patches at www.
Spend less time learning and more time recording Logic Pro X offers Mac users the tools and power they need to create recordings ready to share with the world. This book provides the know-how for navigating the interface, tweaking the settings, picking the sounds, and all the other tech tasks that get in the way of capturing the perfect take.
This book teaches the basics of recording, editing, mixing, and processing audio and MIDI using Logic software. It also provides plenty of power tips to take you beyond the basics and unleash the true power of using Logic Pro X as a creative tool. Please note: Updates for Logic Pro v Completely revised and updated for Logic Pro v A practical guide that takes you from understanding the fundamentals of Logic Pro X to discovering professional music creation techniques with an easy-to-follow approach Key Features Explore the world of music production by getting up to speed with Logic Pro X Understand the fundamentals of music production such as recording, editing, and adding effects to music Learn to produce virtual sounds and music effects to enhance your music and create a final master from a raw music file Book Description Logic Pro X is Apple’s flagship application for music creation, found in many professional music studios across the globe.
It is a powerful digital audio workstation that comes with all the software tools that you need to create music that sounds great. In the latest version, Logic Pro X Providing a comprehensive introduction if you’re new to Mac computer music creation, this practical guide will show you how to use Logic Pro X and have you up to speed in no time.
You’ll not only understand what Apple’s Logic Pro X software can do but also get hands-on with using it to accomplish various musical tasks. The book starts by getting you up and running with the basic terminologies. As you progress, you’ll explore how to create audio and MIDI musical parts. To build on your knowledge further, the book will guide you through developing an automated mix. In addition to this, you’ll learn how to bounce mixes and audio files for distribution. By the end of this book, you’ll be well-versed with Logic Pro X and have the skills you need to create professional-quality music.
A basic understanding of music theories such as chords and notes is highly recommended before you get started.
This Logic Pro X book also assumes that you’ll be working on a Mac. Suitable for both the Amateur and the Expert User. Or a great game? Whether you are a novice amateur, a passionate professional, an indefatigable sound engineer, a multifaceted instrumentalist, or someone curious who wants to learn more about this world, Logic Pro allows you to be, or become A Producer.
You only need to feel like playing. Logic is music! Music can be a hobby. Music can be a toy Music can be work. He has the collective experience of hundreds of concerts, productions, classes and lessons as a trainer, in a method where practice leaves no room for theory. Since its introduction by Emagic in the s, Logic software has become a favorite platform among musicians and music creators everywhere.
Logic Pro and the included online media files will guide you through the fundamentals of music production, including: Studio setup and configuration Basic Logic Pro controls Creating Logic Pro projects Importing and working with audio and MIDI files Recording audio and MIDI Making selections and navigating Editing audio and MIDI Working in the Live Loops Grid Basic mixing and exporting The included exercises and hands-on projects will help you put your learning into practice, Launch your journey to producing better music using a tried and tested approach that has proven successful in certification programs worldwide.
Get started today with Logic Pro —your path to music production success! Logic Pro is a powerful digital audio workstation that comes with all the software tools you need to create great-sounding music. This practical guide helps you understand what Logic Pro can do and how to approach accomplishing your musical tasks through expert guidance and years of experience distilled into the best practices.
Logic pro x pdf free. Apple Logic Pro X User Manual – Download
Start reading Logic Pro X for free online and get access to an unlimited library of academic and non-fiction books on Perlego. Logic Pro X – Apple Pro Training Series: Professional Music Production Record, arrange, mix, produce, and polish your audio files with this. Logic Pro X – Apple Pro Training Series: Professional Music Production to sample the royalty-free Apple Sound Library content that you downloaded.
Read Download Logic Pro X PDF – PDF Download.Logic Pro X – 01 PDF – PDF Free Download
Note that by default, in the control bar, the LCD displays the position of the playhead using only the first two units, bars and beats. However, Good Life Beat is a bit too loud. Now the two drum loops blend together. It feels sparse, but the beat is original enough to capture attention, which is the role of an intro.
Then at bar 5 both the Good Life Beat and Skyline Bass regions on tracks 2 and 3 come in, making the beat sound complete and introducing the melody. To be able to edit the Fine Line Beat region in the intro without affecting its loops to the right, you first have to copy the region to bar 5. When Option-dragging to copy regions, always make sure you release the mouse button first and the Option key last.
If you try to release both at the same time, you may sometimes release the Option key slightly before the mouse button without noticing, and then the region is moved instead of copied. The new Fine Line Beat. To create a break, you need to stop the region from looping.
To resize the region comfortably, you need to zoom in until you can clearly see the individual drum hits on the waveform. To use the zoom tool, you hold down Control and Option and then drag the area you want to magnify. The area you highlighted expands to fill the workspace, and you can clearly see individual drum hits on the waveform.
Zooming in and out efficiently to see exactly what you need takes practice. You can Control-Option-drag to zoom in multiple times and Control-Option-click the workspace multiple times to zoom back out through the same zoom levels. To create the break at the end of the Fine Line Beat region, you will drag its lower-right corner to the left until the final two drum hits are hidden. The mouse pointer turns into a Resize pointer you can drag to determine where the region stops playing.
The drum break creates a sudden void at the end of the intro, which reinforces the impact of the drums and bass. But a void calls out to be filled! That break in the drum loop is the perfect time to capture the attention of the listener by introducing the bass a few notes earlier. This time you will copy the bass region from bar 5 to bar 1, and resize the bass region in the intro from the left so it plays only the final few notes.
This time you will use the Z key to zoom in and out of the selection. The Skyline Bass. The workspace zooms out to display all the regions. You can use zoom sliders or key commands to fine-tune the zoom level.
The workspace zooms out horizontally, and you can see a few more bars in your ruler. In that case, the left edge of the region stays at the same position on your screen. When the playhead is offscreen, the content to the left of the workspace stays at the same position on your screen. When zooming vertically with the zoom sliders or Command-Arrow keys, the selected region stays at the same position on your screen.
If no regions are selected, the selected track stays at the same position on your screen. It works! You start with an original but commanding beat with kicks and handclaps—then all of a sudden, the bass announces the melody with a few pickup notes while the beat drops. On the first beat of the next bar, all three tracks play the entire groove together. That little break at the end of the intro really calls attention to the layered drum and bass groove that starts after the intro.
Remember your newly acquired navigation and zooming skills. You will continue using them to finish this arrangement, and throughout the rest of this book and long after. Build Up the Arrangement Now that you have the rhythmic foundation of your project the drums and bass , you can continue building up the arrangement and avoid monotony by adding melodic elements. Adding Lead Synths In the next exercise, you will add a couple of synth arpeggio loops.
And rather than let them loop throughout the song, you will keep things moving by alternating between the two synth melodies. You already have a solid rhythmic section with bass and low kick drums, so now you are looking for rather clean and high-pitched sounds. If necessary, adjust the zoom level in the workspace so you can comfortably drag both loops to two new tracks.
You will resize the Deal Breaker Arpeggio region to make it one bar long, the same length as the Barricade Arpeggio region. You will now copy both regions so they play alternately. The two synths bring much-needed melody and movement to the song, and they work well in answering each other, each one successively playing its melody.
Currently, both synths sound as if they are coming from the center of the stereo field. To give them a little space, you can spread them apart acoustically by positioning them to either side of the stereo field. If tracks are selected automatically when you select regions on those tracks, you can change this behavior in Logic preferences.
The track selection is unaffected by the region selection. You can now hear the two synths playing from opposite sides of the stereo field, which adds dimension to the music and helps separate the two instruments. Creating a Break Until now, you have kept your project interesting by introducing new elements on a regular basis: the bass at the end of the intro, the drums at bar 5, a synth at bar 9, and another synth at bar But if you keep building your song by adding more elements, at some point those additions may backfire.
The song can become bloated, with the arrangement losing focus, the mix becoming muddy, and the listeners tuning out. Who wants that? By the end of the new synth section, the listeners are so used to hearing the drums and the bass that they may no longer pay attention to them. If you remove them, you can create a big impact. At the top of the Tracks area, look at the tool menus: The menu to the left corresponds to the tool assigned to the mouse pointer.
The menu to the right corresponds to the tool assigned to the mouse pointer when holding down Command. Currently, the left-click tool is assigned to the Pointer tool arrow icon and the Command-click tool is assigned to the Marquee tool crosshair icon. Click it again to close it. The Loop Browser sometimes shows multiple loops with similar names, and that usually means that the loops all follow the same groove, they all follow the same chord progression, or they are meant to work together.
The results list shows loops containing Skyline in their names. The loops sound like they would all work great together because they all follow the same harmony and rhythm. You will now create the break by deleting the drums in track 2 and the bass in track 3 for the entire time the piano is playing.
The Marquee tool places a white highlight rectangle around the selected section of the loops. The section of the loops selected by the Marquee tool is deleted. Some loops are turned into regions before and after the empty space, so the tracks stop and resume playing at the beginning and end of the removed section.
The mouse pointer turns into a Loop tool. Dragging offers the advantage of seeing the exact position in a help tag. The Fine Line Beat. The break brings much needed space and silence, interrupts the flow of the rhythmic section, and automatically shines a light on the two remaining elements: the drum loop and the piano.
After the break, the rhythmic section resumes, but the ending at bar 21 is too abrupt. You will finally shorten the new copy of the piano region so it ends with a sustaining note, which will work better for an ending.
You have arranged your first song. Then two synths share the lead melody for a few bars before the bass and drums abruptly stop to leave room for a piano break. Finally, the bass and drums groove returns, and the song finishes with a few sustained piano notes. Really nice! You will now quickly mix the song and later export it to share it. Mixing the Song Now that you have arranged your regions in the workspace, you can focus on the sound of each instrument and how they sound as an ensemble.
Choosing Names and Icons for Tracks and Channel Strips You will open the Mixer and name your channel strips so you can easily determine which instrument they control. You will then adjust the Volume faders and Pan knobs to change levels and stereo positions, and use plug-ins to process some of the instruments.
At the bottom of the main window, the Mixer opens. The channel strips are named after the Apple Loops that you previously dragged to the workplace. To more quickly locate instruments, you can assign the channel strips more descriptive names. To edit the name on a track header and on its corresponding channel strip, you can double-click either and type the new name. A text entry box appears, and the current name—Fine Line Beat—is selected.
Both the first channel strip in the Mixer and track 1 in the Tracks area are renamed Beat Loop. A text entry box opens. This time you will enter a name and open the text entry box of the next track with a single key command. Track 2 is renamed Drums. Track 3 is renamed Bass, and track 4 is ready to be renamed. Should you enter a name incorrectly, press Shift-Tab to open the text entry box of the previous track or channel strip.
Notice that track 2 has only a generic audio waveform icon. A shortcut menu displays icons organized in categories. A collection of various drum icons appears. The icon is now visible in the track header. The same icon is also assigned to the corresponding channel strip in the Mixer, as you will see in a moment. When your creative juices are flowing, and you just want to make a quick adjustment to the sound of an instrument, wasting time looking for the correct track or channel strip can be frustrating.
Or worse, you could become a victim of the classic mistake: turning knobs and faders but not hearing the sound reacting to your adjustments, until you realize you were adjusting the wrong instrument! Taking a minute to assign your tracks and channel strips descriptive names and appropriate icons can accelerate your workflow and avoid potentially costly mistakes. You can see your new names at the bottom of the channel strips. You can resize the Mixer area to see more of the channel strips.
A Resize pointer appears. The Mixer is now taller, and you can see more options at the top of the channel strips. You will learn about those options as needed. In that case, you can drag the vertical scrollbar to the right of the Mixer to scroll up and see all the options. With the Mixer open and occupying most of the main window, the workspace is much smaller. Depending on your display resolution, navigating your song efficiently may prove challenging or nearly impossible.
To remedy that, you will now adjust the locators in the Tracks area ruler and use Cycle mode to continuously repeat a part of the song that contains all the instruments. If necessary, scroll or zoom out in the workspace so you can see your entire arrangement. Remember: to see all your regions, click the background of the workspace and press Z.
Cycle mode is turned on, and a cycle area appears where you dragged. The cycle area spans the part of the song in which the two synths, the drums, and the bass play, so you can focus on adjusting the sounds of those instruments. Playback starts at the beginning of the cycle area, and the playhead keeps repeating bars 9 through 13, where the two synths are playing.
Synth 2 is significantly louder than Synth 1. Continue adjusting the Volume fader until the Gain display reads The Volume fader affects how much gain is applied to the audio signal flowing through the channel strip and, therefore, controls how loudly that instrument plays. Synth 2 is now quieter and closer to the level of Synth 1. You will now adjust the Pan knobs on the two synth tracks to spread them farther apart in the stereo image.
The synths sound too far apart now and seem disconnected from the rhythm section. The effect is even more pronounced if you listen to the song through headphones. The two synths come back closer to the center of the stereo field.
Now they sound like they belong in the mix. Now you will apply effect plug-ins to process the audio signal flowing through the channel strip, thereby changing the tone of your instruments. In this exercise, you will use a bass amp plug-in to add an edgier character to the bass, and a reverberation plug-in to bring warmth and dimension to the piano.
When multiple formats are available in the menu, if you navigate to only the name of the plug-in, the most likely plug-in format is automatically used. The Power button dims to indicate that the plug-in is off. You can hear what the bass sounds like without the plug-in. It sounds a bit muffled and vaguely distant. The attacks of the bass notes sound brighter and have a little grit to them, giving the bass character.
The bass amp also made the bass a bit louder. In fact, it is a little too loud now. You will now add a plug-in to the Piano channel strip. But first you need to move the cycle area, so you can hear the piano. The piano immediately occupies more space and has more body. And in your arrangement, whenever the piano plays, not many other instruments are playing, so this setting works great.
In the inspector, look at the peak level display on the Output channel strip. When a part of the song is too loud, the Output channel strip peak level display shows a positive value and turns red, indicating that the audio signal is distorted.
In this project, the highest peak in the song is under 0 dB FS, and no distortion is created. In a relatively short time, you have produced a one-minute instrumental song with six tracks, edited the regions in the workspace to build an arrangement, mixed the instruments in the Mixer, and added plug-ins to process their sounds.
You now have a piece of music that would work fine, for example, during the credits of a radio or TV show or as a music bed for a TV ad. Mixing Down to a Stereo File The last step is to mix down the music to a single stereo audio file so that anyone can play it on consumer-level audio software or hardware. In this exercise, you will bounce the project to a stereo audio file.
By first selecting all your regions, you avoid the need to manually adjust the bounce start and end positions. You can choose one or more Destination formats and adjust parameters for each format. You will bounce an MP3 format file that you can easily email or upload to a website. Below the Destination box, notice that the End position is correctly adjusted to the end of bar 23, when the last piano note finishes sustaining. A Bounce dialog opens. Bouncing creates a new stereo audio file on your hard drive.
You will save the new MP3 file to your desktop. A Bouncing progress bar opens, and toward the end of the operation, an additional progress bar indicates the preparation of the MP3 file. When the progress bars disappear, your MP3 file is ready on your desktop. Logic Pro X is hidden, and you can see your desktop.
To unhide an app, press Command-Tab to select it. Your file starts playing. You can now share that MP3 file with all your friends and family! Lesson Review 1. Where is the inspector and what are its uses? Where is the Tracks area and what does it contain? Where is the control bar and what does it contain? Where is the workspace and what does it contain?
When multiple panes are open, how do you make sure the desired pane reacts to key commands? Describe two ways to adjust a numerical value in Logic. How do you copy a region? How do you resize a region? How do you loop a region? In the Mixer, where do you add effect plug-ins?
In the help tag, what are the units of the four numeric values used to determine the length and position of a region? How many ticks are there in a sixteenth note? How do you mix down your project to a stereo audio file? Answers 1. The inspector opens to the left of the Tracks area. Its contextual parameters adapt depending on which area has key focus, and what is selected. The Tracks area is in the center of the main window. It contains the track headers to the left, the ruler at the top, and the workspace where you edit regions.
The control bar is the row of buttons and displays at the top of your display. It contains transport buttons, information LCD displays, and mode buttons. The workspace is in the Tracks area, to the right of the track headers and below the ruler, and it contains the regions used in your project.
Drag the value vertically, or double-click it and enter a new value. Option-drag the region and always release the mouse button first, followed by the Option key. Place the mouse pointer over one of the two lower corners so it changes to a Resize pointer, and then drag horizontally.
Select the region and press L, or select the Loop checkbox in the inspector. In the Audio FX slots of the channel strips. Bars, beats, divisions, and ticks There are ticks in a sixteenth note. Goals Choose digital audio settings Record single and multitrack audio Record additional takes Record in Cycle mode Re-record sections by punching in manually and automatically Adjust count-in, metronome, and other settings Delete unused audio files To build a song, you need to come up with the raw material you will later arrange and mix.
You might start with an idea you have in your head, a part you rehearsed on an instrument, or a prerecorded sample or loop, or you may just start experimenting until inspiration strikes. To sustain and develop that initial inspiration, you need to master the techniques that Logic offers to record, create, and edit the audio and MIDI regions that constitute the building blocks of your project. In this lesson, you will configure Logic for audio recording and study activities you will typically perform when working with live musicians: recording a single instrument, recording additional takes of the same instrument, cycle recording, multitrack recording, punching on the fly, and automatic punching.
Setting Up Digital Audio Recording Before you record audio in Logic, you must connect a sound source such as a microphone, an electric guitar, or a synthesizer to your Mac. You then choose the desired recording settings and adjust the recording level of your sound source to avoid distortion. In the following exercises, you will set up Logic to prepare for a music recording. The microphone transforms sound pressure waves into an analog electrical signal.
The microphone preamp amplifies the analog electrical signal. A gain knob lets you set a proper recording level and avoid distortion. The audio interface sends the digital data stream from the converter to the computer.
Logic Pro saves the incoming data as an audio file displayed on the screen by a waveform representing the sound pressure waves. To convert the analog signal into a digital data stream, the digital converters sample the analog signal at a very fast time interval, or sample rate. The sample rate identifies how many times per second the audio is digitally sampled. The bit depth identifies the number of data bits used to encode the value of each sample.
The sample rate and bit depth settings determine the quality of a digital audio recording. Logic does not exert any influence over the quality of your recordings.
Also, most modern Mac computers include a built-in audio interface. Many Mac notebook computers and iMac computers even have internal microphones. Although those microphones are generally not intended to produce professional-quality recording, you can use the internal microphones to perform the exercises in this lesson in the absence of an external microphone.
By default, Logic records with a bit depth of 24 bits, which is fine for most uses. However, you may need to use different sample rates for different projects. Playing an audio file at the wrong sample rate will result in the wrong pitch and tempo, much like playing an audiotape or vinyl record at the wrong transport speed.
The Project Settings window opens, and you can see your Audio settings. By default, the sample rate is set to To determine which sample rate to choose, consider the sample rate of any prerecorded material you will use such as samples and the sample rate of the target delivery medium.
Some producers who make intensive use of Traditionally, music is recorded at Choosing an Audio Interface In most situations, Logic automatically detects an audio interface when you connect it to your Mac and asks if you want to use that interface. If you choose to use it, Logic selects that interface as both an input and output device in its audio preferences.
The Audio preferences appear. The Output Device is the device connected to your monitors or headphones. The Input Device is the device into which you plug your microphones or instruments.
If you do not have an audio interface connected to your Mac, choose from the built-in output and input devices. If you choose a new output or input device, Logic automatically reinitializes the Core Audio engine when you close the window.
Recording a Single Track In this example, you will record a single instrument. The exercise describes recording an electric guitar plugged directly into an instrument input on your audio interface, but feel free to record your voice or any instrument you have. Preparing a Track for Recording To record audio, you first have to create a new audio track, select the correct input the input number on your audio interface where the guitar is plugged in , and enable that new track for recording.
When adding tracks, the new tracks are inserted below the selected track. To create a new track at the bottom of the Tracks area, you first need to select the bottom track. The New Tracks dialog appears. You can record-enable the track by selecting the Record Enable option below the Output menu; however, in some situations creating a recordenabled track may produce feedback. You will later take precautions to avoid feedback and then record-enable the track from the track header.
A new audio track set to Input 1 is created. Logic automatically assigns the new track to the next available channel. Since six audio tracks were created when you dragged Apple Loops in Lesson 1, the new track is assigned to the Audio 7 channel and is automatically named Audio 7. More descriptive names will help you identify files in the future. The new track has a generic audio waveform icon.
You can now hear your guitar and see its input level on the Guitar channel strip meter in the inspector. This delay is called latency. You can monitor the audio routed to record-enabled tracks while Logic is stopped, playing, or recording. Otherwise, you will be monitoring the signal twice, resulting in a flangy or robotic sound. To emulate the character a guitar amp can give to a guitar sound, you can use Amp Designer, a guitar amplifier modeling plug-in.
Note that you are still recording a dry guitar sound. The effect plug-in processes the dry audio signal in real time during the recording and playback. Recording a dry signal means that you can continue fine-tuning the effect plug-ins or exchange them for other plug-ins after the recording is completed. Amp Designer opens. Here, you can dial in a sound or choose a preset. You can now hear your guitar processed through Amp Designer.
Adjusting the Recording Level Before recording, make sure you can monitor the sound through Logic, and then adjust the source audio level to avoid overloading the converters. On the channel strip, look at the peak level meter, and make sure it always stays below 0 dBFS decibels full scale, the unit used to measure levels in digital audio ; a level above 0 dBFS would indicate that you are clipping the input of your converter.
Keep in mind that you need to adjust the audio level before the converter input by using your microphone preamp gain knob.
Allow some headroom, especially if you know that the artist might play or sing louder during the actual recording. Working with a low-level recording is better than clipping the input.
Some interfaces also support other input settings, such as phantom power, hi-pass filter, and phase. If the Gain knob is dimmed, it means that the feature is not supported by your audio interface. Make sure the peak sits comfortably below 0 dBFS: the wider the dynamic range of the source, the more headroom it needs to avoid clipping.
When your signal peaks below —2. When it peaks between —2. When it peaks above 0 dBFS, the peak level meter turns red to indicate the audio is clipping. Tuning the Instrument Making sure an instrument is in tune before recording is always a good idea.
The Tuner opens. Checking the Balance Now that the guitar is tuned, you can practice the performance and make sure that you can hear yourself and the other instruments comfortably. If the guitar is now too loud or too soft in comparison to the other tracks, in the inspector, drag the volume fader on the Guitar channel strip to adjust the monitoring level, or drag the volume slider in the Guitar track header. Recording Audio You have set the desired sample rate, adjusted the recording and monitoring levels, inserted a plug-in to emulate the sound of a guitar amp, and tuned the instrument.
You are now ready to start recording. The playhead is positioned at bar If you need to adjust the position of the playhead, drag it left or right.
The playhead and the LCD display in the control bar both turn red to indicate that Logic is recording. The playhead jumps one bar earlier and gives you a four-beat count-in with an audible metronome click before the recording starts.
You will learn how to alter both the metronome and the count-in settings later in this lesson. The new recording, Guitar 01, appears as a blue-shaded audio region. To the name of the track, Logic appends the number of the recording. The playhead jumps to the beginning of the selected region and playback starts.
If you are not happy with your new recording, you can delete it and start over. In the Finder, the audio file is moved from inside the project package to the Trash. The audio file stays in the Project Audio Browser and is still present inside the project package, allowing you to later drag it back to the workspace if necessary.
This alert appears only when you try to delete a recording made since you most recently opened the project. When deleting an audio region that was previously recorded, the behavior corresponding to the Keep option is automatically applied and an alert does not appear. You will keep your recording so you can experiment with recording additional takes in the next exercise.
Recording Additional Takes When recording a live performance, musicians can make mistakes. Rather than deleting the previous recording and repeatedly recording until you get a flawless performance, you can record several takes repeat performances of the same musical part and later choose the best take, or even combine the best parts of each take to create a comp composite take. To preserve multiple takes in Logic, you can record new performances over previous ones.
The new recording in red appears to be recorded over the previous blue audio region. Both the original recording Take 1 and the new recording Take 2 have been saved into a take folder. The take folder is on the Guitar track. It is currently open, so the two takes you recorded are displayed on subtracks below. By default, the take folder plays the most recent take you recorded: Take 2, in this case. The previous take, Take 1, is dimmed and muted.
The track is disarmed, and you can no longer hear the sound coming from Input 1 on your audio interface. The take folder now contains three takes. It plays back the most recent one, Take 3, while the two previous ones, Take 1 and Take 2, are muted. Recording in Cycle mode allows you to repeatedly record a single section, thereby creating a new take for each pass of the cycle. When you stop recording, all the takes are saved inside a take folder.
The Guitar track is automatically record-enabled. The playhead jumps a bar ahead of the cycle for a one-measure count-in, and starts recording the first take. When it reaches bar 9, the end of the cycle area, it jumps back to bar 5 and starts recording a new take. Logic keeps looping the cycle area, recording new takes until you stop recording. Record two or three takes. All the takes recorded in Cycle mode are packed into a take folder. The Guitar track is automatically disabled for recording.
To keep the last take of a cycle recording, make sure you stop the recording more than one bar after the beginning of the cycle area. The take folder closes. Doing so allows you to record several instruments at once, placing each instrument on a separate track, so that you can later adjust their volumes and stereo positions or process them individually. You first create the desired number of tracks, making sure that each track is assigned to a different input number that corresponds to the input number on your audio interface where the microphone is plugged in.
In the following exercise, you will record two mono tracks at the same time, which you can do using the built-in Mac audio interface. To record more than two tracks at once, you need an audio interface with more than two inputs.
The exercise describes recording an acoustic guitar on Input 1 and a vocal microphone on Input 2. When creating multiple tracks, selecting Ascending automatically sets the inputs or outputs to ascending settings. In this case, you will create two tracks, so the first will be assigned to Input 1 and the second to Input 2. Make sure that you took precautions to avoid feedback, as explained at the beginning of this lesson; this time you will create record-enabled tracks. Two new tracks are added at the bottom of the Tracks area and automatically assigned to the next available audio channels Audio 8 and Audio 9.
Their inputs are set to Input 1 and Input 2, and both are record-enabled. The multitrack recording starts, and after a one-measure count-in, you see the red playhead appear to the left of the workspace, creating two red regions, one on each record-enabled track. You now have a new blue-shaded audio region on each track. You can use the same procedure to simultaneously record as many tracks as needed. If the tracks already exist in the Tracks area, make sure you assign them the correct inputs, record-enable them, and start recording.
Punching In and Out When you want to correct a specific section of a recording—usually to fix a performance mistake—you can restart playback before the mistake, punch in to engage recording just before the section you wish to fix, and then punch out to stop recording immediately after the section while playback continues.
This technique allows you to fix smaller mistakes in a recording while still listening to the continuity of the performance. At any time, you can open the take folder and select the original recording. There are two punching methods: on the fly and automatic. Punching on the fly allows you to press a key to punch in and out while Logic plays, whereas automatic punching requires you to identify the autopunch area in the ruler before recording.
Punching on the fly is fast but usually requires an engineer to perform the punch-in and punch-out while the musician is performing. Automatic punching is ideal for the musician-producer who is working alone. Assigning Key Commands To punch on the fly, you will use the Record Toggle command, which is unassigned by default. Click the disclosure triangle next to Global Commands. The Key Commands window lists all available Logic commands and their keyboard shortcuts, if any.
When looking for a specific functionality in Logic Pro X, open the Key Commands window and try to locate the function using the search field. A command likely exists for that functionality that may or may not be assigned. When Learn by Key Label is selected, you can press a key, or a key plus a combination of modifiers Command, Control, Shift, Option , to create a keyboard command for the selected function.
An alert indicates that the R key is already assigned to the Record command. You could click Replace to assign R to Record Toggle, but then Record would no longer be assigned to a keyboard shortcut.
Control-J is now listed in the Key column next to Record Toggle, indicating that the command was successfully assigned. Punching on the Fly You will now use the Record Toggle key command you assigned in the previous exercise to punch on the Vocals track the bottom track in your Tracks area. When punching on the fly, you may first want to play the performance to determine which section needs to be re-recorded, and to be ready to punch in and out at the desired locations.
Position your fingers on the keyboard to be ready to press your Record Toggle key command when you reach the point where you want to punch in. The playhead continues moving, but Logic is now recording a new take on top of the previous recording.
Keep your fingers in position to be ready to punch out. The recording stops while the playhead continues playing the project. On the Vocals track, a take folder was created.
It contains your original recording Take 1 and the new take Take 2. A comp is automatically created Comp A that combines the original recording up to the punch-in point, the new take between the punch-in and punch-out points, and the original recording after the punch-out point. Fades are automatically applied at the punch-in and punch-out points.
You will learn more about fades in Lesson 3. The take folder disappears, and you once again see the Vocals 01 region on the Vocals track. Punching on the fly is a great technique that allows the musician to focus on his performance while the engineer takes care of punching in and out at the right times.
On the other hand, if you worked alone through this exercise and tried to punch in and punch out while playing your instrument or singing, you realize how challenging it can be. When working alone, punching automatically is recommended. Punching Automatically To prepare for automatic punching, you enable the Autopunch mode and set the autopunch area.
Setting the punch-in and punch-out points in advance allows you to focus entirely on your performance during recording. First, you will customize the control bar to add the Autopunch button. The ruler becomes taller to accommodate for the red autopunch area. The autopunch area defines the section to be re-recorded. You can define the autopunch area with more precision when you can clearly see where the mistakes are on the audio waveform.
Logic zooms in, and the selected region fills the workspace. Here we have a vocal recording in which the two words around bar 3 need to be re-recorded. Listen while watching the playhead move over the waveform to determine which part of the waveform corresponds to the words you need to replace.
You can drag the edges of the autopunch area to resize it, or drag the entire area to move it. Red vertical guidelines help you align the punch-in and punch-out points with the waveform. Playback starts. When the playhead reaches the punch-in point the left edge of the autopunch area , the Record button turns solid red and Logic starts recording a new take. When the playhead reaches the punch-out point the right edge of the autopunch area , the recording stops but the playback continues.
A take folder, Vocals: Comp A, is created on the track. Logic zooms out so you can see the entire take folder filling the workspace. Just as when you punched on the fly in the previous exercise, a comp is automatically created that plays the original recording up to the punch-in point, inserts the new take between the punch-in and punch-out points, and continues with the original recording after the punch-out point. When a marquee selection is present, starting a recording automatically turns on the Autopunch mode, and the autopunch area matches the marquee selection.
Recording Without a Metronome Musicians often use a tempo reference when recording. In most modern music genres, when live drums are used, drummers record their performance while listening to a metronome or a click track. When electronic drums are used, they are often recorded or programmed first, and then quantized to a grid so that they follow a constant tempo. The other musicians later record their parts while listening to this drum track.
Still, some musicians prefer to play to their own beat and record their instrumental tracks without following a metronome, click track, or drum track. When recording audio in Logic, you can set up Smart Tempo to analyze a recording and automatically create a tempo map that follows the performance so that the notes end up on the correct bars and beats. Subsequent recording or MIDI programming can then follow that tempo map, ensuring that all tracks play in sync. An empty project template opens, and the New Tracks dialog opens.
To make Logic analyze the audio recording and create a corresponding tempo map, you should set the Project Tempo mode to Adapt. The orange color indicates that those parameters will be affected by a new recording. Get ready to record. Because the Project Tempo mode is set to Adapt, the metronome does not automatically play unlike the Project Tempo mode set to Keep mode.
You no longer need it! Try playing something that has an obvious rhythmic quality to it, such as a staccato rhythm part in which you can clearly distinguish the individual chords or notes. During the recording, Logic displays red vertical lines over the recording when it detects beats. An alert offers to open the File Tempo Editor so you can preview the recording and adjust the positions of the beat markers that Logic created while analyzing the file.
In the Global Tempo track, you can see multiple tempo changes. In that case, perform this exercise again, making sure you can hear a strong rhythmic reference in your recording. For example, try tapping a very basic beat with your fingers in front of the microphone.
You have recorded a rubato performance without listening to a timing reference. Logic automatically detected your tempo changes and applied them to the project tempo. Some settings do not affect the quality of the audio recording but can alter the behavior of your project during recording or change the audio file format used for recordings. The next few exercises will show you how those settings affect the audio recording process and explain how to modify them. Setting the Count-In The count-in is the time you have to prepare yourself and get in the groove before the actual recording begins.
The take folder is deleted. Until now, every time you pressed Record, the playhead jumped to the beginning of the previous measure so you could have a four-beat count-in. However, sometimes you may want to start recording without a count-in. The playhead starts from its current position, and Logic starts recording right away. At other times, you may need a longer count-in, or you may want Logic to count in for a specific number of beats. The audio region is removed from the workspace, but the audio file is still in the project folder.
The playhead jumps two bars ahead to bar 3, and playback starts. When the playhead reaches bar 5, Logic starts recording. Setting the Metronome By default, the metronome is turned off during playback and automatically plays during recording. In this exercise, you will change the default behaviors using the Metronome button and later go into the Metronome settings to adjust its sounds. The metronome is on. The metronome is off. The metronome is back on.
You now have inverted the default behavior: the metronome is on during playback and is automatically turned off during recording. The Metronome Settings window opens. There are settings for two metronomes: Audio Click also known as Klopfgeist, which is German for knocking ghost , which you are using, and MIDI Click, which is now off.
Under the name of each metronome, you can adjust the pitch and velocity of the notes playing on each bar and beat. The metronome sounds a little low compared to the drum loop on track 1. In fact, you can hear it only when no drum hit occurs on that beat. At the bottom of the Metronome Settings window, you can drag a couple of sliders to adjust the sound of the metronome. The metronome sound changes, and you can start hearing a pitch.
When a project already contains a drum track, you may need the metronome only during the count-in to get into the groove before the song starts. You hear the metronome for one measure, and then it stops playing as the song and the recording start at bar 1.
It places a number of samples in an input buffer for recording and in an output buffer for monitoring. When a buffer is full, Logic processes or transmits the entire buffer. The larger the buffers, the less computing power is required from the CPU. The advantage of using larger input and output buffers is that the CPU has more time to calculate other processes, such as instrument and effects plug-ins.
The drawback to using a larger buffer is that you may have to wait a bit for the buffer to fill before you can monitor your signal. That means a longer delay between the original sound and the one you hear through Logic, a delay called roundtrip latency.
Usually, you want the shortest possible latency when recording and the most available CPU processing power when mixing so that you can use more plugins. The Audio preferences pane opens. When choosing a different audio device, make sure you click Apply Changes to update the Resulting Latency value displayed. The latency is now shorter. If your Mac has a multicore CPU, you can see a meter for each core. You can monitor the amount of work each core is doing.
When the CPU works harder, you might hear pops and crackles while the song plays. When playing the project becomes too much work for the CPU, playback stops and you will see an error alert.
Deleting Unused Audio Files The Project Audio Browser shows all the audio files and audio regions that have been imported or recorded in your project. During a recording session, the focus is on capturing the best possible performance, and you may want to avoid burdening yourself with the decision making that comes with deleting bad takes.
You may also have several unused audio files in the Project Audio Browser that make the project package or folder bigger than it needs to be. In this next exercise, you will select and delete all unused audio files from your hard drive. The audio data in the audio file stays intact, and the regions merely point to different sections of the audio file.
You will learn more about nondestructive editing in Lesson 3. If a Delete alert appears, select Keep and click OK. The regions are removed from the workspace, but their parent audio files are still present in the Project Audio Browser. All the audio files that do not have an associated region in the workspace are selected. While the region plays, a small white playhead travels through the regions. Once you feel satisfied that the selected audio files do not contain any useful material, you can delete them.
An alert asks you to confirm the deletion. The audio files are removed from the Project Audio Browser. In the Finder, the files are moved to the Trash. You are now ready to tackle many recording situations: you can record a single track or multiple tracks, add new takes in a take folder, and fix mistakes by punching on the fly or automatically. You know where to adjust the sample rate, and you understand which settings affect the behavior of the software during a recording session.
And you can reduce the file size of your projects by deleting unused audio files—which will save disk space, and download and upload time should you wish to collaborate with other Logic users over the Internet. What two fundamental settings affect the quality of a digital audio recording? In Logic, where can you find the sample rate setting? What precaution must you take before record-enabling multiple tracks simultaneously?
In Autopunch mode, how do you set the punch-in and punch-out points? Describe an easy way to access your Metronome settings. Describe an easy way to access your count-in settings. In the Project Audio Browser, when selecting unused files, what determines whether a file is used or unused? The sample rate and the bit depth 2. Make sure the tracks are assigned different inputs. Adjust the left and right edge of the autopunch area in the middle of the ruler. Control-click the Metronome button, and choose Metronome settings.
The CPU works less hard so you can use more plug-ins, but the roundtrip latency is longer. An audio file is considered unused when no regions present in the workspace refer to that file. Goals Assign Left-click and Command-click tools Edit audio regions nondestructively in the workspace Add fades and crossfades Create a composite take from multiple takes Import audio files Edit audio regions nondestructively in the Audio Track Editor Align audio using the Flex tool Audio engineers have always looked for new ways to edit recordings.
In the days of magnetic recording, they used razor blades to cut pieces of a recording tape and then connected those pieces with special adhesive tape. They could create a smooth transition or crossfade between two pieces of magnetic tape by cutting at an angle. Digital audio workstations revolutionized audio editing. The waveform displayed on the screen is a visual representation of the digital audio recordings stored on the hard disk.
The ability to read that waveform and manipulate it using the Logic editing tools is the key to precise and flexible audio editing. In this lesson, you will edit audio regions nondestructively in the workspace and the Audio Track Editor, and add fades and crossfades. You will open a take folder and use Quick Swipe Comping to create a single composite take. Even as your ability to read waveforms and use the Logic editing tools develops, never forget to use your ears and trust them as the final judge of your work.
Assigning Mouse Tools Until now, you have exclusively worked with the default tools. You have also used keyboard modifiers such as Control-Option to choose the Zoom tool, and changed the pointer to tools such as the Resize or Loop tools. When editing audio in the workspace, you will need to access even more tools. In the Tracks area and in various editors , two menus are available to assign the Left-click tool and the Command-click tool.
Previewing and Naming Regions During recording sessions, helping the talent produce the best possible performance often takes priority over secondary tasks such as naming regions.
In this exercise, you will assign tools to the mouse pointer. You will use the Solo tool to preview the audio regions on the new Guitar track, and apply the Text tool to rename them. You can hear a region play back in solo mode by placing the Solo tool over the region and holding down the mouse button. In the control bar, the Solo button turns on, and the LCD display and the playhead both turn yellow.
The region is soloed, and you can play back starting from the location where you placed the Solo tool. You can also drag the Solo tool to scrub the region. You can change the playback speed or direction by dragging the Solo tool to the right or to the left. You can hear that the guitar is playing single, muted notes, so you will give it a descriptive name based on those notes.
If you hold down Command when your pointer is over a region, it changes to the Text tool. A text field appears, in which you can enter a new name for the region.
You can hear some dead notes at the beginning of this take folder, and about a bar of funk rhythm guitar in bar You will edit this take folder later in this lesson. In those regions, the guitar sustains chords, so you will name the regions after the chord names. Instead of moving back and forth from the workspace to the tool menus in the Tracks area menu bar, you can press T to open the Tool menu at the current pointer position. A Tool menu appears at the pointer position.
This key command will save you a lot of trips to the title bar. You can also Command-click a tool in the pop-up Tool menu to assign it to the Command-click tool. The Tool menu opens and closes, and the Left-click tool reverts to the Pointer tool. Both tools are back to their default assignments: the Pointer tool for the Left-click tool and the Marquee tool for the Command-click tool.
Editing Regions in the Workspace Editing audio regions in the workspace is nondestructive. Regions are merely pointers that identify parts of an audio file. When you cut and resize regions in the workspace, only those pointers are altered.
No processing is applied to the original audio files, which remain untouched on your hard disk. As a result, editing in the workspace provides a lot of flexibility and room for experimentation because you can always adjust your edits at a later date.
In this next exercise, you will edit the Muted Single Notes region on the Guitar track. In the Snap menu, a checkmark appears in front of the modes you choose.
The help tag shows that the region length is now 4 0 0 0. You will now repeat the simple motif in the last two bars of the Muted Single Notes region a couple more times, from bars 9 to 13, where the synthesizers play.
The Command-click tool is now the Marquee tool, and the Left-click tool is the Pointer tool. This is a very powerful tool combination when editing audio in the workspace.
You can select a section of an audio region with the Marquee tool, and move or copy that selection using the Pointer tool. The section you selected with the Marquee tool is highlighted. The playhead jumps to bar 7 and plays the selection. It corresponds exactly to the two-bar pattern of the guitar you are going to copy.
Option-dragging a marquee selection automatically divides, copies, and pastes the selection to a new location regardless of region boundaries. Upon completing the course material in this guide, you can become Apple Certified by passing the. Logic Pro X To find an Apple Authorized Training.
Provider near you, please visit training. Veteran producer and composer David Nahmani uses step-by-step, project-basedinstructions and straightforward explanations to teach everything from basic music creation to sophisticated productiontechniques. You will create both acousticand electronic virtual drum performances using Drummer tracks with Drum Kit Designer and Drum Machine Designer.
You have already flagged this document. Thank you, for helping us keep this platform clean. The editors will have a look at it as soon as possible. Self publishing. Share Embed Flag. TAGS download logic ebook audio midi drum certification ebooks audiobook downloadable. Do you know the secret to free website traffic? Insider knowledge. Veteran producer and composer David Nahmani uses step-by-step, project-based instructions and straightforward explanations to teach everything from basic music creation to sophisticated production techniques.
You will create both acoustic and electronic virtual drum performances using Drummer tracks with Drum Kit Designer and Drum Machine Designer. Focused lessons take you step by step through practical, real-world tasks.
Lesson goals and time estimates help you plan your time. The Apple Pro Training Series is both a self-paced learning tool and the official curriculum of the Apple Training and Certification program. Upon completing the course material in this guide, you can become Apple Certified by passing the Logic Pro X To find an Apple Authorized Training Provider near you, please visit training. More documents Similar magazines Info. Free Download Logic Pro X Focused lessons take you step by step Page 2: through practical, real-world tasks.
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software instruments, while keeping your MIDI keyboard free for other tasks. parameters, see the MIDI plug-ins section of the Logic Pro Effects manual. × PDF Drive offered in: English. Faster previews. Personalized experience. Get started with a FREE account.